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Cárcel a pacientes de cannabis médica: Diputados Comisión Salud

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  • Ricardo Sala
    Estimad@s foristas y pacientes: ESTAMOS INDIGNADÍSIM@S!!!! Es momento de participar. Por favor envíen a este foro la evidencia para publicarla y armárselas
    Mensaje 1 de 3 , 29 ago 2008
      Estimad@s foristas y pacientes: ESTAMOS INDIGNADÍSIM@S!!!!

      Es momento de participar. Por favor envíen a este foro la evidencia para publicarla y armárselas a EN GRANDE:
      1.- evidencia CIENTÍFICA, estudios avalados por instituciones respetables, links a sus resultados en web etc
      2.- evidencia TESTIMONIAL, casos de banda, colegas, amigos, abuelitos, aunque sea anónima (tal vez logremos armar un video)
      Envíenlo a este foro!!!!

      ¿Cuál es la urgencia? CHEQUEN:

      --- En vivecondrogas@..., fanzine ilegal <fanzineilegal@...> escribió:
      > Rechazan diputados uso de mariguana con fines médicos
      > Destaca la Comisión de Salud que no se encontró evidencia científica que refiera que esa hierba sea superior a los medicamentos actuales
      http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/notas/533542.html 

      El voto fue unánime así que TOD@S son (ir)responsables:
      Integrantes de la Comisión de Salud:
      PRESIDENCIA
      Ramirez Barba Ector Jaime, PAN
      SECRETARÍA
      Muñoz Serrano Jose Antonio, PAN. Vieyra Olivares Adriana Rebeca, PAN. Mayans Canabal Fernando Enrique, PRD. Morales Sanchez Efrain, PRD. Vega Ortiz Maria Oralia, PRI. Abad De Jesus Juan, CONV. Lopez Adame Antonio Xavier, PVEM
      OTROS INTEGRANTES: Arenas Guzman Margarita, Arizmendi Uribe Efrain, Cantu Garza Ricardo, Contreras Julian Maricela, Corral Aguilar Maria Mercedes, De los Santos Molina Joaquin Conrado, Dehesa Mora Daniel, Dominguez Dominguez Nemesio, Garcia Reyes Beatriz Eugenia, Garcia Reyes Angel Humberto, Garmendia Hernandez Yolanda Mercedes, Gloria Requena Tomas, Martinez Rodriguez Lorena, Matus Toledo Holly, Mendoza Flores Roberto, Morales Garcia Elizabeth, Navarro Quintero Miguel Angel, Ojeda Camacho Gilberto, Partida Guzman Martha Rocio, Quintero Bello Jorge, Rubio Chavez Jose Ignacio Alberto, Valenzuela Garcia Maria Gloria Guadalupe
      http://sitl.diputados.gob.mx/integrantes_de_comision.php?comt=47

      UUUUULEEEEEEROOOOS!

      El link incluye teléfonos y direcciones para que les preguntemos POR QUÉ DECIDIERON SEGUIR DETENIENDO Y ENCARCELANDO A LOS PACIENTES USUARIOS DEL MEDICAMENTO MÁS BARATO DEL MUNDO.

      Dicen que está chido que los polis y los jueces sigan deteniendo, multando y encarcelando a los pacientes que desde hace milenios son medicados con esta hierba INOFENSIVA para adultos responsables; la razón: "que no se encontró evidencia científica que refiera que esa hierba sea superior a los medicamentos actuales"

      Evidencia #1: es la más barata de todos los medicamentos efectivos (facilísima de producir)

      Evidencia CIENTIFICA de la utilidad médica del cannabis: ahí les va una excelente y DOCUMENTADA SÍNTESIS (en inglés, sorry, a ver si Mamadoc o alguien la puede traducir). Los autores son John P. Morgan y Lynn Zimmer, el año es 1995, y el documento sirvió de base para editar Marijuana Myths Marijuana Facts, que refiere mayores evidencias.


      CLAIM #3: MARIJUANA IS A DRUG WITHOUT THERAPEUTIC VALUE


      Proposals to make marijuana legally available as a medicine are countered with claims that safer, more effective drugs are available, including a synthetic version of delta-9-THC, marijuana's primary active ingredient.

      THE FACTS

      For thousands of years, throughout the world, people have used marijuana to treat a variety of medical conditions.10 Today, in the United States, such use is prohibited. Although thirty-six states have passed legislation to allow marijuana's use as a medicine, federal law preempts their making marijuana legally available to patients.

      A number of studies have shown that marijuana is effective in reducing nausea and vomiting,11 lowering intraocular pressure associated with glaucoma,12 and decreasing muscle spasm and spasticity.13 Today, many people use marijuana for these and other medical purposes, despite its illegal status.14

      People undergoing cancer chemotherapy have found smoked marijuana to be an effective anti-nauseant -- often more effective than available pharmaceutical medications.15 Indeed, 44 percent of oncologists responding to a questionnaire said they had recommended marijuana to their cancer patients; others said they would recommend it if it were legal.16

      Marijuana is also smoked by thousands of AIDS patients to treat the nausea and vomiting associated with both the disease and AZT drug therapy. Because it stimulates appetite, marijuana also counters HIV-related "wasting," allowing AIDS patients to gain weight and prolong their lives.

      In 1986, a synthetic delta-9-THC capsule (Marinol) was marketed in the United States and labeled for use as an anti-emetic. Despite some utility, this product has serious drawbacks, including its cost. For example, a patient taking three 5 mgm capsules a day would spend over $5,000 to use Marinol for one year. In comparison to the natural, smokeable product Marinol also has some pharmacological shortcomings.17

      Because THC delivered in oral capsules enters the bloodstream slowly, it yields lower serum concentrations per dose. Oral THC circulates in the body longer at effective concentrations, and more of it is metabolized to an active compound; thus, it more frequently yields unpleasant psychoactive effects.

      In patients suffering from nausea, the swallowing of capsules may itself provoke vomiting. In short, the smoking of crude marijuana is more efficient in delivering THC and, in some cases, it may be more effective.

      The continuing illegality of medical marijuana is based more on political than scientific considerations. Although during the 1970s the government supported exploration into marijuana's therapeutic potential,18 its role has become one of blocking new research19 and opposing any change in marijuana's legal status.20

      10 Rubin, V., "Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis," pp 1-18 in S. Cohen and R.C. Stillman (eds), The
      Therapeutic Potential of Marijuana, New York: Plenum Medical Book Company (1976).
      11 Chang, A.E. et al, "Delta-Nine-Tetrahydrocannabinol as an Antiemetic in Cancer Patients Receiving High-Dose Methotrexate: A
      Prospective Randomized Evaluation, Annals of Internal Medicine 91: 819-24 (1979).
      12 Hepler, R.S. and Frank, I.R., "Marijuana Smoking and Intracular Pressure," Journal of the American Medical Association 217: 1392
      (1971).
      13 Petro, D.J., "Marijuana as a Therapeutic Agent for Muscle Spasm or Spasticity," Psychosomatics 21: 81-85 (1980).
      14 Grinspoon, L. and Bakalar, J.B, Marijuana: The Forbidden Medicine, New Haven: Yale University Press (1993).
      15 Vinciguerra, V. et al, "Inhalation Marijuana as an Antiemetic for Cancer Chemotherapy," New York State Journal of Medicine 85:525-27
      (1988); Dansac, D., "In the Matter of Marijuana Rescheduling Petition," Affidafit filed in Drug Enforcement Adminstration Hearings,
      Docket 86-22 (1987).
      16 Doblin, R. and Kleiman, M.A.R., "Marijuana as an Anti-Emetic Medicine: A Survey of Oncologists' Attitudes and Experiences," Journal
      of Clinical Oncology 19: 1275-1290 (1991).
      17 Agurell, S. et al, "Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Delta-1-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Other Cannabinoids with Emphasis on Man,"
      Pharmacological Reviews 38: 21-43 (1986).
      18 Cohen, S., "Therapeutic Aspects," pp 194-225 in R.C. Petersen (ed) Marijuana Research Findings: 1976, Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse (1977); Cohen, S. and Stillman, R.C. (eds), The Therapeutic Potential of Marijuana, New York: Plenum Medical Book Company (1976); National Institute on Drug Abuse, Marijuana and Health, Report to Congress (1980).
      19 "Members of Congress Voice Support for Marijuana/AIDS Research," Newsletter of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic
      Studies 5,3 (Winter 1995).
      20 Drug Enforcement Administration, Drug Legalization: Myths and Misconceptions, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice (1994).


      Saludos del RIC
    • Juan Pablo García Vallejo
      Esta negativa al uso médico de la mariguana era de esperarse en estos cabezas de puerco anencefálicos y reaccionarios... Pero servirá para que los
      Mensaje 2 de 3 , 30 ago 2008
        Esta negativa al uso médico de la mariguana era de esperarse en estos cabezas de puerco anencefálicos y reaccionarios...
        Pero servirá para que los interesados en la despenalización de la mota refuerzen su activismo, que a veces parece inexistente, con otras actividades extra-asambleísticas...
        La cultura del  cannabis necesita ser difundida constantemente para rebasar la ignorancia institucional y política de esta minoría de vividores del presupuesto público...
         
         
        Saludos
        CARPE DIEM




        To: vivecondrogas@...
        From: ricardelico@...
        Date: Fri, 29 Aug 2008 17:45:26 +0000
        Subject: :vcd! Cárcel a pacientes de cannabis médica: Diputados Comisión Salud


        Estimad@s foristas y pacientes: ESTAMOS INDIGNADÍSIM@ S!!!!

        Es momento de participar. Por favor envíen a este foro la evidencia para publicarla y armárselas a EN GRANDE:
        1.- evidencia CIENTÍFICA, estudios avalados por instituciones respetables, links a sus resultados en web etc
        2.- evidencia TESTIMONIAL, casos de banda, colegas, amigos, abuelitos, aunque sea anónima (tal vez logremos armar un video)
        Envíenlo a este foro!!!!

        ¿Cuál es la urgencia? CHEQUEN:

        --- En vivecondrogas@ yahoogrupos. com.mx, fanzine ilegal <fanzineilegal@ ...> escribió:
        > Rechazan diputados uso de mariguana con fines médicos
        > Destaca la Comisión de Salud que no se encontró evidencia científica que refiera que esa hierba sea superior a los medicamentos actuales
        http://www.eluniver sal.com.mx/ notas/533542. html 

        El voto fue unánime así que TOD@S son (ir)responsables:
        Integrantes de la Comisión de Salud:
        PRESIDENCIA
        Ramirez Barba Ector Jaime, PAN
        SECRETARÍA
        Muñoz Serrano Jose Antonio, PAN. Vieyra Olivares Adriana Rebeca, PAN. Mayans Canabal Fernando Enrique, PRD. Morales Sanchez Efrain, PRD. Vega Ortiz Maria Oralia, PRI. Abad De Jesus Juan, CONV. Lopez Adame Antonio Xavier, PVEM
        OTROS INTEGRANTES: Arenas Guzman Margarita, Arizmendi Uribe Efrain, Cantu Garza Ricardo, Contreras Julian Maricela, Corral Aguilar Maria Mercedes, De los Santos Molina Joaquin Conrado, Dehesa Mora Daniel, Dominguez Dominguez Nemesio, Garcia Reyes Beatriz Eugenia, Garcia Reyes Angel Humberto, Garmendia Hernandez Yolanda Mercedes, Gloria Requena Tomas, Martinez Rodriguez Lorena, Matus Toledo Holly, Mendoza Flores Roberto, Morales Garcia Elizabeth, Navarro Quintero Miguel Angel, Ojeda Camacho Gilberto, Partida Guzman Martha Rocio, Quintero Bello Jorge, Rubio Chavez Jose Ignacio Alberto, Valenzuela Garcia Maria Gloria Guadalupe
        http://sitl. diputados. gob.mx/integrant es_de_comision. php?comt= 47

        UUUUULEEEEEEROOOOS!

        El link incluye teléfonos y direcciones para que les preguntemos POR QUÉ DECIDIERON SEGUIR DETENIENDO Y ENCARCELANDO A LOS PACIENTES USUARIOS DEL MEDICAMENTO MÁS BARATO DEL MUNDO.

        Dicen que está chido que los polis y los jueces sigan deteniendo, multando y encarcelando a los pacientes que desde hace milenios son medicados con esta hierba INOFENSIVA para adultos responsables; la razón: "que no se encontró evidencia científica que refiera que esa hierba sea superior a los medicamentos actuales"

        Evidencia #1: es la más barata de todos los medicamentos efectivos (facilísima de producir)

        Evidencia CIENTIFICA de la utilidad médica del cannabis: ahí les va una excelente y DOCUMENTADA SÍNTESIS (en inglés, sorry, a ver si Mamadoc o alguien la puede traducir). Los autores son John P. Morgan y Lynn Zimmer, el año es 1995, y el documento sirvió de base para editar Marijuana Myths Marijuana Facts, que refiere mayores evidencias.


        CLAIM #3: MARIJUANA IS A DRUG WITHOUT THERAPEUTIC VALUE


        Proposals to make marijuana legally available as a medicine are countered with claims that safer, more effective drugs are available, including a synthetic version of delta-9-THC, marijuana's primary active ingredient.

        THE FACTS

        For thousands of years, throughout the world, people have used marijuana to treat a variety of medical conditions.10 Today, in the United States, such use is prohibited. Although thirty-six states have passed legislation to allow marijuana's use as a medicine, federal law preempts their making marijuana legally available to patients.

        A number of studies have shown that marijuana is effective in reducing nausea and vomiting,11 lowering intraocular pressure associated with glaucoma,12 and decreasing muscle spasm and spasticity.13 Today, many people use marijuana for these and other medical purposes, despite its illegal status.14

        People undergoing cancer chemotherapy have found smoked marijuana to be an effective anti-nauseant -- often more effective than available pharmaceutical medications. 15 Indeed, 44 percent of oncologists responding to a questionnaire said they had recommended marijuana to their cancer patients; others said they would recommend it if it were legal.16

        Marijuana is also smoked by thousands of AIDS patients to treat the nausea and vomiting associated with both the disease and AZT drug therapy. Because it stimulates appetite, marijuana also counters HIV-related "wasting," allowing AIDS patients to gain weight and prolong their lives.

        In 1986, a synthetic delta-9-THC capsule (Marinol) was marketed in the United States and labeled for use as an anti-emetic. Despite some utility, this product has serious drawbacks, including its cost. For example, a patient taking three 5 mgm capsules a day would spend over $5,000 to use Marinol for one year. In comparison to the natural, smokeable product Marinol also has some pharmacological shortcomings. 17

        Because THC delivered in oral capsules enters the bloodstream slowly, it yields lower serum concentrations per dose. Oral THC circulates in the body longer at effective concentrations, and more of it is metabolized to an active compound; thus, it more frequently yields unpleasant psychoactive effects.

        In patients suffering from nausea, the swallowing of capsules may itself provoke vomiting. In short, the smoking of crude marijuana is more efficient in delivering THC and, in some cases, it may be more effective.

        The continuing illegality of medical marijuana is based more on political than scientific considerations. Although during the 1970s the government supported exploration into marijuana's therapeutic potential,18 its role has become one of blocking new research19 and opposing any change in marijuana's legal status.20

        10 Rubin, V., "Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis," pp 1-18 in S. Cohen and R.C. Stillman (eds), The
        Therapeutic Potential of Marijuana, New York: Plenum Medical Book Company (1976).
        11 Chang, A.E. et al, "Delta-Nine- Tetrahydrocannab inol as an Antiemetic in Cancer Patients Receiving High-Dose Methotrexate: A
        Prospective Randomized Evaluation, Annals of Internal Medicine 91: 819-24 (1979).
        12 Hepler, R.S. and Frank, I.R., "Marijuana Smoking and Intracular Pressure," Journal of the American Medical Association 217: 1392
        (1971).
        13 Petro, D.J., "Marijuana as a Therapeutic Agent for Muscle Spasm or Spasticity," Psychosomatics 21: 81-85 (1980).
        14 Grinspoon, L. and Bakalar, J.B, Marijuana: The Forbidden Medicine, New Haven: Yale University Press (1993).
        15 Vinciguerra, V. et al, "Inhalation Marijuana as an Antiemetic for Cancer Chemotherapy, " New York State Journal of Medicine 85:525-27
        (1988); Dansac, D., "In the Matter of Marijuana Rescheduling Petition," Affidafit filed in Drug Enforcement Adminstration Hearings,
        Docket 86-22 (1987).
        16 Doblin, R. and Kleiman, M.A.R., "Marijuana as an Anti-Emetic Medicine: A Survey of Oncologists' Attitudes and Experiences, " Journal
        of Clinical Oncology 19: 1275-1290 (1991).
        17 Agurell, S. et al, "Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Delta-1-Tetrahydroc annabinol and Other Cannabinoids with Emphasis on Man,"
        Pharmacological Reviews 38: 21-43 (1986).
        18 Cohen, S., "Therapeutic Aspects," pp 194-225 in R.C. Petersen (ed) Marijuana Research Findings: 1976, Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse (1977); Cohen, S. and Stillman, R.C. (eds), The Therapeutic Potential of Marijuana, New York: Plenum Medical Book Company (1976); National Institute on Drug Abuse, Marijuana and Health, Report to Congress (1980).
        19 "Members of Congress Voice Support for Marijuana/AIDS Research," Newsletter of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic
        Studies 5,3 (Winter 1995).
        20 Drug Enforcement Administration, Drug Legalization: Myths and Misconceptions, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice (1994).


        Saludos del RIC



        ¿Tienes cámara digital, más de una cuenta de email, planeas fiestas o blogueas? Entonces, necesitas Windows Live
      • Juan Pablo García Vallejo
        Estimados amigos mariguanos ciudadanizados: Este rechazo a la inicativa de la mariguana como medicina, nos dice el nivel de ignorancia y estupidez de los
        Mensaje 3 de 3 , 31 ago 2008
           
          Estimados amigos mariguanos ciudadanizados:
           
          Este rechazo a la inicativa de la mariguana como medicina, nos dice el nivel de ignorancia y estupidez de los Asambleístas, que solo aprueban leyes pendejas....!
          Leyes pendejas donde todo esos parasitos no salen raspados y por eso no hay que confiar ni votar por estos partidos ese será el mayor castigo para esos anencefalicos grillos...!
          No todo  depende de lo que decidan esos politicos medioces e ignorantes, los movi8mientos sociales tienen su propia lógica, objetivos y medios de lucha...!
          La ley por el aborto, la voluntad anticipada son leyes mediocres como esta de los transgeneros y Caballitos de Mar  (¡Saben que es eso?)
          consiguieron sus leyes porque fueron a manifestarse a las afueras de la Asamblea...
          ¿Cómo es posible, me pregunto que una Sopciedad Catolica Conservadora Mexicana crea que esta a la altura para vivir o superar la represión sexual...?
          ¡Porque legislan el capricho de unos cuantos por encima de una mayoría...?
          Por que tienen un candidato abiertamente gay u homo u travesti... el tal Camacho
          ¿Cuándo, donde a qué horas Alternativa y sus diputados locales invitaron al personal pacheco a apoyar su ley...?
           
          Respuesta: Nunca.
           No todo lo puede los diálogos palaciegos, de pasillo o cupulares... S e ecesitan simpatizantes, convencidos, con la camiseta puesta, sin verguenza, que defiendan sus derechos o si no que sigan viajando esperando la despenalización que baje del cielo...
          Esta derrota de Alternativa es para que aprendan que además de Iniciativas de Ley hecha por profesionales del derecho es necesario tener una base de apoyo convencida, decidida y combativa...
          No mariguanos de fin de semana....
          despolitizados, indiferentes, consumistas y zombis...!
          Por eso a mi los partidos politicos no sirven de nada y prefiero difundir la Cultura Cannabica  desde esñpacios extra-parlamentarios y que no necesita aprobación de ninguna autoridad retrograda ni mucho menos gandalla...
          Y lastima de inicativa que no cuenta con simpatizantes verdaderos...!
          Y Alternativa lle mal la realidad, una cosa en un problema social de salud y otra muy distintacreer que puede manejar un sistema vicioso y corrupto sin apoyo social...
           
          Saludos
          CARPE DIEM
           
          Saludos
           Carpe Diem



          To: vivecondrogas@...
          From: ricardelico@...
          Date: Fri, 29 Aug 2008 17:45:26 +0000
          Subject: :vcd! Cárcel a pacientes de cannabis médica: Diputados Comisión Salud


          Estimad@s foristas y pacientes: ESTAMOS INDIGNADÍSIM@ S!!!!

          Es momento de participar. Por favor envíen a este foro la evidencia para publicarla y armárselas a EN GRANDE:
          1.- evidencia CIENTÍFICA, estudios avalados por instituciones respetables, links a sus resultados en web etc
          2.- evidencia TESTIMONIAL, casos de banda, colegas, amigos, abuelitos, aunque sea anónima (tal vez logremos armar un video)
          Envíenlo a este foro!!!!

          ¿Cuál es la urgencia? CHEQUEN:

          --- En vivecondrogas@ yahoogrupos. com.mx, fanzine ilegal <fanzineilegal@ ...> escribió:
          > Rechazan diputados uso de mariguana con fines médicos
          > Destaca la Comisión de Salud que no se encontró evidencia científica que refiera que esa hierba sea superior a los medicamentos actuales
          http://www.eluniver sal.com.mx/ notas/533542. html 

          El voto fue unánime así que TOD@S son (ir)responsables:
          Integrantes de la Comisión de Salud:
          PRESIDENCIA
          Ramirez Barba Ector Jaime, PAN
          SECRETARÍA
          Muñoz Serrano Jose Antonio, PAN. Vieyra Olivares Adriana Rebeca, PAN. Mayans Canabal Fernando Enrique, PRD. Morales Sanchez Efrain, PRD. Vega Ortiz Maria Oralia, PRI. Abad De Jesus Juan, CONV. Lopez Adame Antonio Xavier, PVEM
          OTROS INTEGRANTES: Arenas Guzman Margarita, Arizmendi Uribe Efrain, Cantu Garza Ricardo, Contreras Julian Maricela, Corral Aguilar Maria Mercedes, De los Santos Molina Joaquin Conrado, Dehesa Mora Daniel, Dominguez Dominguez Nemesio, Garcia Reyes Beatriz Eugenia, Garcia Reyes Angel Humberto, Garmendia Hernandez Yolanda Mercedes, Gloria Requena Tomas, Martinez Rodriguez Lorena, Matus Toledo Holly, Mendoza Flores Roberto, Morales Garcia Elizabeth, Navarro Quintero Miguel Angel, Ojeda Camacho Gilberto, Partida Guzman Martha Rocio, Quintero Bello Jorge, Rubio Chavez Jose Ignacio Alberto, Valenzuela Garcia Maria Gloria Guadalupe
          http://sitl. diputados. gob.mx/integrant es_de_comision. php?comt= 47

          UUUUULEEEEEEROOOOS!

          El link incluye teléfonos y direcciones para que les preguntemos POR QUÉ DECIDIERON SEGUIR DETENIENDO Y ENCARCELANDO A LOS PACIENTES USUARIOS DEL MEDICAMENTO MÁS BARATO DEL MUNDO.

          Dicen que está chido que los polis y los jueces sigan deteniendo, multando y encarcelando a los pacientes que desde hace milenios son medicados con esta hierba INOFENSIVA para adultos responsables; la razón: "que no se encontró evidencia científica que refiera que esa hierba sea superior a los medicamentos actuales"

          Evidencia #1: es la más barata de todos los medicamentos efectivos (facilísima de producir)

          Evidencia CIENTIFICA de la utilidad médica del cannabis: ahí les va una excelente y DOCUMENTADA SÍNTESIS (en inglés, sorry, a ver si Mamadoc o alguien la puede traducir). Los autores son John P. Morgan y Lynn Zimmer, el año es 1995, y el documento sirvió de base para editar Marijuana Myths Marijuana Facts, que refiere mayores evidencias.


          CLAIM #3: MARIJUANA IS A DRUG WITHOUT THERAPEUTIC VALUE


          Proposals to make marijuana legally available as a medicine are countered with claims that safer, more effective drugs are available, including a synthetic version of delta-9-THC, marijuana's primary active ingredient.

          THE FACTS

          For thousands of years, throughout the world, people have used marijuana to treat a variety of medical conditions.10 Today, in the United States, such use is prohibited. Although thirty-six states have passed legislation to allow marijuana's use as a medicine, federal law preempts their making marijuana legally available to patients.

          A number of studies have shown that marijuana is effective in reducing nausea and vomiting,11 lowering intraocular pressure associated with glaucoma,12 and decreasing muscle spasm and spasticity.13 Today, many people use marijuana for these and other medical purposes, despite its illegal status.14

          People undergoing cancer chemotherapy have found smoked marijuana to be an effective anti-nauseant -- often more effective than available pharmaceutical medications. 15 Indeed, 44 percent of oncologists responding to a questionnaire said they had recommended marijuana to their cancer patients; others said they would recommend it if it were legal.16

          Marijuana is also smoked by thousands of AIDS patients to treat the nausea and vomiting associated with both the disease and AZT drug therapy. Because it stimulates appetite, marijuana also counters HIV-related "wasting," allowing AIDS patients to gain weight and prolong their lives.

          In 1986, a synthetic delta-9-THC capsule (Marinol) was marketed in the United States and labeled for use as an anti-emetic. Despite some utility, this product has serious drawbacks, including its cost. For example, a patient taking three 5 mgm capsules a day would spend over $5,000 to use Marinol for one year. In comparison to the natural, smokeable product Marinol also has some pharmacological shortcomings. 17

          Because THC delivered in oral capsules enters the bloodstream slowly, it yields lower serum concentrations per dose. Oral THC circulates in the body longer at effective concentrations, and more of it is metabolized to an active compound; thus, it more frequently yields unpleasant psychoactive effects.

          In patients suffering from nausea, the swallowing of capsules may itself provoke vomiting. In short, the smoking of crude marijuana is more efficient in delivering THC and, in some cases, it may be more effective.

          The continuing illegality of medical marijuana is based more on political than scientific considerations. Although during the 1970s the government supported exploration into marijuana's therapeutic potential,18 its role has become one of blocking new research19 and opposing any change in marijuana's legal status.20

          10 Rubin, V., "Cross-Cultural Perspectives on Therapeutic Uses of Cannabis," pp 1-18 in S. Cohen and R.C. Stillman (eds), The
          Therapeutic Potential of Marijuana, New York: Plenum Medical Book Company (1976).
          11 Chang, A.E. et al, "Delta-Nine- Tetrahydrocannab inol as an Antiemetic in Cancer Patients Receiving High-Dose Methotrexate: A
          Prospective Randomized Evaluation, Annals of Internal Medicine 91: 819-24 (1979).
          12 Hepler, R.S. and Frank, I.R., "Marijuana Smoking and Intracular Pressure," Journal of the American Medical Association 217: 1392
          (1971).
          13 Petro, D.J., "Marijuana as a Therapeutic Agent for Muscle Spasm or Spasticity," Psychosomatics 21: 81-85 (1980).
          14 Grinspoon, L. and Bakalar, J.B, Marijuana: The Forbidden Medicine, New Haven: Yale University Press (1993).
          15 Vinciguerra, V. et al, "Inhalation Marijuana as an Antiemetic for Cancer Chemotherapy, " New York State Journal of Medicine 85:525-27
          (1988); Dansac, D., "In the Matter of Marijuana Rescheduling Petition," Affidafit filed in Drug Enforcement Adminstration Hearings,
          Docket 86-22 (1987).
          16 Doblin, R. and Kleiman, M.A.R., "Marijuana as an Anti-Emetic Medicine: A Survey of Oncologists' Attitudes and Experiences, " Journal
          of Clinical Oncology 19: 1275-1290 (1991).
          17 Agurell, S. et al, "Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism of Delta-1-Tetrahydroc annabinol and Other Cannabinoids with Emphasis on Man,"
          Pharmacological Reviews 38: 21-43 (1986).
          18 Cohen, S., "Therapeutic Aspects," pp 194-225 in R.C. Petersen (ed) Marijuana Research Findings: 1976, Rockville, MD: National Institute on Drug Abuse (1977); Cohen, S. and Stillman, R.C. (eds), The Therapeutic Potential of Marijuana, New York: Plenum Medical Book Company (1976); National Institute on Drug Abuse, Marijuana and Health, Report to Congress (1980).
          19 "Members of Congress Voice Support for Marijuana/AIDS Research," Newsletter of the Multidisciplinary Association for Psychedelic
          Studies 5,3 (Winter 1995).
          20 Drug Enforcement Administration, Drug Legalization: Myths and Misconceptions, Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice (1994).


          Saludos del RIC



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